Cholesterol

“Nutritional values of buckwheat reach maximum on day 8 sprouting by solid-phase cultivation (BSSC). The precious nutrients surveyed included linolenic acid, total polyphenolics, rutin, quercetin, l-ascorbic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid. To investigate whether a change of cultivation method could improve the nutritional status, we performed aquaculture. By performing chemical, biochemical and animal experiments, we found that maximization of nutrient levels in aquacultured buckwheat sprouts (BSAQ) occurred 2 days earlier than those from BSSC. Simultaneously, their bioactivities were much enhanced, being superior to BSSC regarding antioxidative, free radical scavenging, anti-low-density lipoprotein lipoperoxidative capabilities and hypolipidemic bioactivity with respect to serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in Syrian hamsters. In addition, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the ratios LDL-C/HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C were all more efficiently suppressed by BSAQ diets. In conclusion, aquaculture is more efficient than the solid-phase cultivation with regard to acceleration and maximization of precious nutrient levels in buckwheat sprouts.” 
 
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 
2009 Jun 30:1-14. 
Aqua-culture improved buckwheat sprouts with more abundant precious nutrients and hypolipidemic activity.
Peng CC, Chen KC, Yang YL, Lin LY, Peng RY. School of Physical Therapy.
 
Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent free-radical scavenging (FRS) and antioxidative (ANO) capabilities. However, its Fe (2+)-chelating capability was only moderate. To further study the hypolipidemic activity of D8SP, 36 Syrian hamsters were grouped into six groups and fed for 28 days, respectively, with (i) control meal, (ii) high fat plus high cholesterol meal, (iii) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of buckwheat seeds, (iv) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of buckwheat seeds, (v) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of D8SP, and (vi) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of D8SP. High seed meal prominently enhanced body weight gain, whereas high sprout meal exhibited the highest feed efficiency. Ratios of liver/body weight (L/B) were significantly lowered by all BS meals. Although low seed meal reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) levels ( p < 0.05), its effect was still inferior to the high seed and sprout meals ( p < 0.01). In contrast, serum triglyceride (TG) levels were lowered only by the high seed and sprout meals ( p < 0.05). Alternatively, levels of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly suppressed by all buckwheat meals ( p < 0.01). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased, however, insignificantly. Nutraceutically more meaningful is that both LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly lowered.  ( p < 0.01). Apparently, hepatic TC levels were significantly reduced, whereas hepatic TG levels were totally unaffected. Conclusively, sprouting triggers a variety of nutritional changes in buckwheats. Day 8 sprouts, consisting of high polyphenolic and moderate quercetin contents, are nutraceutically maximized when hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidative activities are concerned.”
 
J Agric Food Chem.
 2008 Jan 24  
Optimization of Bioactive Compounds in Buckwheat Sprouts and Their Effect on Blood Cholesterol in Hamsters.
Lin LY, Peng CC, Yang YL, Peng RY.
 
“Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were fed with peanut sprouts as a dietary supplement for 18 weeks.  The rats were divided into five groups and fed with different daily supplements, namely 0 g (control), 16.5, 10 or 6 g of sprouts or 2.4 g of kernels. Aflatoxin contents of the sprouts (n = 24) were less than 1 µg kg-1. Body weights of all rats increased with feeding time, and final body weights differed insignificantly among test groups (P > 0.05). Weights of liver, kidney and spleen and organ/body weight ratios varied insignificantly among test groups (P > 0.05). All serum and blood cell determinations differed insignificantly (P > 0.05) among test groups, apart from the observation of a significant lowering of serum triacylglycerol (TG) level in the 10 g sprout group (P < 0.05).
 
CONCLUSION: In general, no obvious growth hazard or health toxicity was detected. For nutraceutical development, the lowering of serum TG level achieved by appropriate intake of peanut sprouts is noteworthy.”  
 
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture  
Volume 88, Issue 12, Date: September 2008, Pages: 2201-2207
Toxicological and nutraceutical assessments of peanut sprouts as daily supplements to feed Sprague-Dawley rats for 18 weeks
Bo-Si Lin  et al.
 
 
“Twelve healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females) consumed fresh broccoli sprouts (100 g/day) for 1 week for a phase 1 study. Before and after the treatment, biochemical examination was conducted and natural killer cell activity, plasma amino acids, plasma PCOOH (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide), the serum coenzyme Q_{10}, urinary 8-isoprostane, and urinary 8-OHdG (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) were measured. With treatment, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased, and HDL cholesterol increased significantly. Plasma cystine decreased significantly. All subjects showed reduced PCOOH, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, and increased CoQ_{10}H_{2}/CoQ_{10} ratio. Only one week intake of broccoli sprouts improved cholesterol metabolism and decreased oxidative stress markers.”
 
BioFactors
V 22, N 1-4/2004, p 271-275
Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts
Megumi Murashima, Shaw Watanabe, Xing-Gang Zhuo, Mariko Uehara, Atsushi Kurashige
http://iospress.metapress.com/content/jfh1vkjbyyckvwnm/
Crude dietary fiber samples were prepared from [sprouts of] beet, cabbage, Japanese radish, onion, and mung bean sprouts (BF, CF, RF, OF, and MF, respectively). These samples contained total dietary fiber at the levels of 814, 699, 760, 693 and 666 g/kg, respectively. To examine the effect of the dietary fibre sources on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (FF) diet or on an FF diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. Dietary fiber extracted from vegetables, wood cellulose (CL), pectin (PE) and guar gum (GG) were used as the fiber sources. Compared with the rats fed on the FF diet, a significant reduction in the plasma cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats fed on BF, CF, RF, MF, PE or GG after a 21-d feeding period. Cecal acetate, n-butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly higher in the rats fed on these dietary fibers, except for CF, than in those fed on the FF diet. A negative correlation was apparent between the total dietary fiber content, hemicellulose content and pectin content of each dietary fiber source and the plasma cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that some vegetable fibers exert a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect through cecal fermentation of these fibers.
 
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem
 2000 Dec;64(12):2543-51 
Plasma cholesterol-lowering effect on rats of dietary fiber extracted from immature plants.
  Nishimura N, Taniguchi Y, Kiriyama S.
 
 
 
 
“Since alfalfa meal prevents hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits and alfalfa saponins prevent the expected rise in cholesterolemia induced by dietary cholesterol in monkeys, the experiments being reported here were performed to determine whether alfalfa saponins affect atherogenesis in rabbits. In addition, the effects of alfalfa seeds were studied. Cholesterol-feb rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (a) control animals (N = 18); (b) animals maintained on a diet containing 1.0 to 1.2% alfalfa saponins (N = 18); and (c) animals maintained on a diet containing 40% alfalfa seeds (N = 17). Results after a 4-month observation period demonstrated that alfalfa saponins and alfalfa seeds reduce hypercholesterolemia, aortic sudanophilia, and the concentration of cholesterol in aortic intima-plus-media and in the liver, but do not induce changes in the hematocrit.”
 
Atherosclerosis. 
1980 Nov;37(3):433-8.  
Alfalfa saponins and alfalfa seeds. Dietary effects in cholesterol-fed rabbits.
Malinow MR, McLaughlin P, Stafford C, Livingston AL, Kohler GO.